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G-codes, also called preparatory codes, are any word in a CNC program that begins with the letter G. Generally it is a code telling the machine tool what type of action to perform, such as:
There are also other codes like for example the M-code.
List of M-codes commonly found on FANUC and similarly designed controls for milling and turning.
G-code (also RS-274) is a language in which people tell computerized machine tools how to make something. The "how" is defined by g-code instructions provided to a machine controller (industrial computer) that tells the motors where to move, how fast to move, and what path to follow. The most common situation is that, within a machine tool, a cutting tool is moved according to these instructions through a toolpath and cuts away material to leave only the finished workpiece. The same concept also extends to noncutting tools such as forming or burnishing tools, photoplotting, additive methods such as 3D printing, and measuring instruments.